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HLA-Typing and Crossmatch

We offer a range of diagnostic services to identify the HLA antibodies present in donated tissues – reducing the risk of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR)

Tissue transplantation is used to treat a range of conditions, including kidney disease, heart failure, and respiratory conditions.

However, the presence of donor-specific antibodies within the recipient increases the rate of antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). While classic T-cell mediated rejection can be reduced by the prescription of immunosuppressant drugs, AMR is difficult to treat with conventional treatments and can have serious consequences for the patient. 

To reduce the risk of AMR, we offer a range of HLA diagnostic services that can identify the HLA antibodies present on donated tissues. Since 2018, it is mandatory for HLA antibody testing to be covered by insurance companies for all organ transplants.

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Frequently asked questions about HLA typing

What is HLA Typing?

HLA Typing identifies the HLA type of the donor and recipient. Our HLA Typing Test can confirm the HLA profile of both the organ donor and recipient by confirming the HLA compatibility before transplantation. As of August 1, 2018, the reagents used for HLA typing (LABType®, One Lambda) have been replaced by (WAKFlow®, Yoon & Yang Pharmaceutical).

What is the Anti-HLA antibody test?

This screening test identifies whether the tissue recipient has donor-specific antibodies (DSAs). By combining an anti-HLA antibody screening with flowcytometric crossmatching (FCXM), our scientists can detect the presence or absence of anti-HLA antibodies in the tissue recipient. 

When might this type of testing be required?

The body produces antibodies to non-autologous proteins in many situations, including organ transplantation, hematopoietic cell transplantation, and blood transfusion. If the tissue recipient possesses anti-HLA antibodies to the donor tissue, this could lead to transplant rejection.

Is this test performed before or after transplantation?

The test can be performed both before and after transplantation:

  • Our anti-HLA antibody test provides early detection of anti-HLA antibodies before transplantation. If the screen detects antibodies, the patient will require desensitization to suppress antibody activity before transplantation.
  • After transplantation, this test can be used to monitor the patient's antibody levels or to prevent and manage postoperative production of anti-HLA antibodies to avoid AMR.

What is flowcytometric crossmatching?

FCXM determines whether the recipient’s immune system responds to the donor’s serum. Using FCXM, our scientists can monitor the levels of DSA in the recipient's blood before and after transplantation. By combining anti-HLA antibody testing with FCXM, we can provide a highly sensitive method of antibody detection.

What happens if the Anti-HLA antibody Screening test is positive?

If the anti-HLA antibody tests are positive, an anti-HLA single antigen identification test can be used to identify whether the anti-HLA antibodies detected are donor-specific (DSA) or not.