Stemolecule All-Trans Retinoic Acid is the oxidized form of Vitamin A and functions as a signaling molecule for various developmental pathways that control differentiation and proliferation1,2. It acts by binding to heterodimers of the retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and the retinoid × receptor (RXR), which then bind to retinoic acid response elements (RAREs) in the regulatory regions activating gene transcription3. All-Trans Retinoic Acid has been implicated in specification of the embryonic anterior/posterior axis through Hox gene regulation4. It has been used in various differentiation protocols, including B-cells, T-cells and neurons and applied clinically to treat cancer as a form of differentiation-induction therapy2,5-11.
Stemolecule All-Trans Retinoic Acid
Greater than 98% by HPLC analysis
Yellow to light orange crystalline powder
For a 10 mM concentrated stock solution of All-Trans Retinoic Acid, add 1.66mL of DMSO to 5mg of the compound. If a precipitate is observed, warm the solution to 37°C for 2 to 5 minutes. For cell culture, the media should be prewarmed prior to adding the reconstituted compound. Note: for most cells, the maximum tolerance to DMSO is less than 0.5%. This molecule is soluble in DMSO at 100 mM and 95% ethanol at 9 mM.
Storage and Stability
Store powder at 4°C protected from light. Information about the stability of Stemolecules in solution is largely not available. As a general guideline, we recommend that stock solution be freshly made and stored in aliquots at −20°C. The effect of storage of stock solutions should be verified for each application.
The purity of All-Trans Retinoic Acid was determined by HPLC analysis. The accurate mass was determined by mass spectrometry. Cellular toxicity of All-Trans Retinoic Acid was tested on mouse embryonic stem cells.